Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2014
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation
Basis of presentation: The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial information and with the instructions for interim reporting as they are prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary to make the financial statements not misleading have been included. As such, the information included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013 that are included in our Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 28, 2014. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2013, included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures including notes required by GAAP. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future interim period or for the year ending December 31, 2014.
Segment Reporting
Segment Reporting: Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is used by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. We view our operations and manage our business in one operating segment, which is the business of developing and selling diagnostic tests.
Liquidity: Our primary sources of liquidity have been funds generated from our debt financings and equity financings. In addition, we have generated funds from the following sources: (i) cash collections from our customers (ii) cash received from sales of state net operating loss carryforwards, and; (iii) grants from the National Institutes of Health.
Principles of consolidation
Principles of consolidation: The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cancer Genetics, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiary, Cancer Genetics Italia S.r.l (“CGI Italia”). CGI Italia manufactures DNA probes. CGI Italia had approximately $470,000 and $398,000 in total assets at June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively, and approximately $96,000 and $44,000 in total revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively. All significant intercompany account balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates and assumptions
Use of estimates and assumptions: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates made by management include, among others, realization of amounts billed, realization of long-lived assets, realization of intangible assets, accruals for litigation and registration payments and assumptions used to value stock options and warrants. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Risks and uncertainties
Risks and uncertainties: We operate in an industry that is subject to intense competition, government regulation and rapid technological change. Our operations are subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial, operational, technological, regulatory and other risks, including the potential risk of business failure.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents: Highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased are considered to be cash equivalents. Financial instruments which potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. We maintain cash and cash equivalents with high-credit quality financial institutions. At times, such amounts may exceed insured limits. We have not experienced any losses in such accounts and believe we are not exposed to any significant credit risk on our cash and cash equivalents.
Restricted cash
Restricted cash: Represents cash held at financial institutions which we may not withdraw and which collateralizes certain of our financial commitments. All of our restricted cash is invested in interest bearing certificates of deposit. Our restricted cash collateralizes a fully-utilized $6.0 million line of credit with Wells Fargo Bank and a $300,000 letter of credit in favor of our landlord, pursuant to the terms of the lease for our Rutherford facility.
Revenue recognition
Revenue recognition: Revenue is recognized in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 605, Revenue Recognition, and ASC 954-605 Health Care Entities, Revenue Recognition which requires that four basic criteria must be met before revenue can be recognized: (1) persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred and title and the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer or services have been rendered; (3) the price is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. In determining whether the price is fixed or determinable, we consider payment limits imposed by insurance carriers and Medicare and the amount of revenue recorded takes into account the historical percentage of revenue we have collected for each type of test for each payor category. Periodically, an adjustment is made to revenue to record differences between our anticipated cash receipts from insurance carriers and Medicare and actual receipts from such payors. For the periods presented, such adjustments were not significant. For direct bill customers (including clinical trials customers), revenue is recorded based upon the contractually agreed upon fee schedule. When assessing collectability, we consider whether we have sufficient payment history to reliably estimate a payor’s individual payment patterns. For new tests where there is no evidence of payment history at the time the tests are completed, we only recognize revenues once reimbursement experience can be established. Until then, we recognize revenue equal to the amount of cash received. Sales of probes are recorded on the shipping date. We do not bill customers for shipping and handling fees and do not collect any sales or other taxes.

Revenues from grants to support product development are recognized when costs and expenses under the terms of the grant have been incurred and payments under the grants become contractually due.
Accounts receivable
Accounts receivable: Accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less an estimate for contractual adjustments and doubtful receivables, the amounts of which are determined by an analysis of individual accounts. Our policy for assessing the collectability of receivables is dependent upon the major payor source of the underlying revenue. For direct bill clients, an assessment of credit worthiness is performed prior to initial engagement and is reassessed periodically. If deemed necessary, an allowance is established on receivables from direct bill clients. For insurance carriers where there is not an established pattern of collection, revenue is not recorded until cash is received. For receivables where insurance carriers have made payments to patients instead of directing payments to the Company, an allowance is established for a portion of such receivables. After reasonable collection efforts are exhausted, amounts deemed to be uncollectible are written off against the allowance for doubtful accounts. Since the Company only recognizes revenue to the extent it expects to collect such amounts, bad debt expense related to receivables from patient service revenue is recorded in general and administrative expense in the consolidated statement of operations. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded when received.
Deferred revenue
Deferred revenue: Payments received in advance of services rendered are recorded as deferred revenue and are subsequently recognized as revenue in the period in which the services are performed.

Fixed assets
Fixed assets: Fixed assets consist of diagnostic equipment, furniture and fixtures and leasehold improvements. Fixed assets are carried at cost and are depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which generally range from five to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the lease term or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. The straight-line method is used for depreciation and amortization. Repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred while improvements are capitalized. Upon sale, retirement or disposal of fixed assets, the accounts are relieved of the cost and the related accumulated depreciation or amortization with any gain or loss recorded to the consolidated statement of operations.

Fixed assets are reviewed for impairment whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. These computations utilize judgments and assumptions inherent in our estimate of future cash flows to determine recoverability of these assets. If our assumptions about these assets were to change as a result of events or circumstances, we may be required to record an impairment loss.
Loan guarantee and financing fees
Loan guarantee and financing fees: Loan guarantee fees are amortized on a straight-line basis over the term of the guarantee. Financing fees are amortized using the effective interest method over the term of the related debt.
Warrant liability
Warrant liability: We have issued certain warrants which contain an exercise price adjustment feature in the event we issue additional equity instruments at a price lower than the exercise price of the warrant. The warrants are described herein as derivative warrants. We account for these derivative warrants as liabilities. These common stock purchase warrants do not trade in an active securities market, and as such, we estimate the fair value of these warrants using the binomial lattice valuation pricing model with the assumptions as follows. The risk-free interest rate for periods within the contractual life of the warrant is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve. The expected life of the warrants is based upon the contractual life of the warrants. Volatility is estimated based on an average of the historical volatilities of the common stock of three entities with characteristics similar to those of the Company. Prior to our IPO, the measurement date fair value of the underlying common shares was based upon an external valuation of our shares. (See Note 9). Following the IPO in April 2013 and until our shares listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market in August 2013, we used the closing price of our shares on the OTC Bulletin Board. Following the listing of our shares on the NASDAQ Capital Market in August 2013, we used the closing price on the NASDAQ Capital Market.

We compute the fair value of the warrant liability at each reporting period and the change in the fair value is recorded as non-cash expense or non-cash income. The key component in the value of the warrant liability is our stock price, which is subject to significant fluctuation and is not under our control. The resulting effect on our net income (loss) is therefore subject to significant fluctuation and will continue to be so until the warrants are exercised, amended or expire. Assuming all other fair value inputs remain constant, we will record non-cash expense when the stock price increases and non-cash income when the stock price decreases.
Income taxes
Income taxes: Income taxes are provided for the tax effects of transactions reported in the consolidated financial statements and consist of taxes currently due plus deferred income taxes. Deferred income taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future. Deferred income taxes are also recognized for net operating loss carryforwards that are available to offset future taxable income and research and development credits.

Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. We have established a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets.

ASC 740, Income Taxes, clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements. ASC 740 provides that a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions may be recognized when it is more-likely-than-not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. Income tax positions must meet a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold to be recognized. ASC 740 also provides guidance on measurement, de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.

Our policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. There is no accrual for interest or penalties on our consolidated balance sheets and we have not recognized interest and/or penalties in the consolidated statements of operations.
Patents: We account for intangible assets under ASC 350-30. Patents consist of legal fees incurred and are recorded at cost and amortized over the useful lives of the assets, using the straight-line method. Certain patents are in the legal application process and therefore are not currently being amortized. We review the carrying value of patents at the end of each reporting period. Based upon our review, there were no intangible asset impairments during the periods reported. Accumulated amortization of patents as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 was approximately $69,000 and $56,000, respectively.
Research and development
Research and development: Research and development costs associated with service and product development include direct costs of payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation and supplies and an allocation of indirect costs including rent, utilities, depreciation and repairs and maintenance. All research and development costs are expensed as they are incurred.

Registration payment arrangements
Registration payment arrangements: We account for our obligations under registration payment arrangements in accordance with ASC 825-20, Registration Payment Arrangements. ASC 825-20 requires us to record a liability if we determine a registration payment is probable and if it can reasonably be estimated. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, we have an accrued liability of $300,000 related to the issuance of Series B preferred stock.
Stock-based compensation
Stock-based compensation: Stock-based compensation is accounted for in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair values on the grant date. We estimate the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods using the straight-line method. See additional information in Note 7.

All issuances of stock options or other issuances of equity instruments to employees as the consideration for services received by us are accounted for based on the fair value of the equity instrument issued.

We account for stock-based compensation awards to non-employees in accordance with ASC 505-50, Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees. Under ASC 505-50, we determine the fair value of the warrants or stock-based compensation awards granted as either the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. Stock-based compensation awards issued to non-employees are recorded in expense and additional paid-in capital in stockholders’ equity over the applicable service periods based on the fair value of the awards or consideration received at the vesting date.
Fair value of financial instruments
Fair value of financial instruments: The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, approximate their estimated fair values due to the short term maturities of those financial instruments. These financial instruments are considered Level 1 measurements under the fair value hierarchy. The fair values of our notes payable, line of credit and capital leases approximate carrying value under Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. The fair value of warrants recorded as derivative liabilities is described in Note 9.
Joint venture accounted for under the equity method
Joint venture accounted for under the equity method: The Company records its joint venture investment following the equity method of accounting, reflecting its initial investment in the joint venture and its share of the joint venture’s net earnings or losses and distributions. The Company’s share of the joint venture’s net loss was approximately $298,000 and $0 for the three months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively and $310,000 and $0 for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively, and is included in Research and development expense on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. The Company has a net receivable due from the joint venture of approximately $0 and $24,000 at June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively, which is included in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. See additional information in Note 11.
Subsequent events
Subsequent events: We have evaluated potential subsequent events through the date the financial statements were issued.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements: In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), requiring an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The updated standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective and permits the use of either a full retrospective or retrospective with cumulative effect transition method. Early adoption is not permitted. The updated standard becomes effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal year 2017.  The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on the consolidated financial statements.
Earnings (loss) per share
Earnings (loss) per share: Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period of computation. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share except that the numerator is adjusted for the change in fair value of the warrant liability (only if dilutive) and the denominator is increased to include the number of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method.