Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation Basis of presentation: The Company prepares its financial statements on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Segment reporting Segment reporting: Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is used by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment, which is the business of developing and selling diagnostic tests and services.
Principles of consolidation
Principles of consolidation: The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cancer Genetics, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.
All significant intercompany account balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Foreign currency Foreign currency: The Company translates the financial statements of its foreign subsidiaries, which have a functional currency in the respective country’s local currency, to U.S. dollars using month-end exchange rates for assets and liabilities and average exchange rates for revenue, costs and expenses. Translation gains and losses are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income as a component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions that are denominated in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency are included within the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Use of estimates and assumptions Use of estimates and assumptions: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates made by management include, among others, realization of amounts billed, realization of long-lived assets, realization of intangible assets, accruals for litigation and registration payments, assumptions used to value stock options, warrants and goodwill and the valuation of assets and liabilities associated with the Business Disposals. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Risks and uncertainties Risks and uncertainties: The Company operates in an industry that is subject to intense competition, government regulation and rapid technological change. the Company's operations are subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial, operational, technological, regulatory, foreign operations, and other risks, including the potential risk of business failure.
Cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents: Highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased are considered to be cash equivalents. Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents with high-credit quality financial institutions. At times, such amounts may exceed insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on its cash and cash equivalents.
Restricted cash Restricted cash: Represents cash held at financial institutions which the Company may not withdraw and which collateralizes certain of the Company's financial commitments. All of the Company's restricted cash is invested in interest bearing certificates of deposit.
Revenue recognition and Deferred revenue
Revenue recognition: Revenue is recorded at the amount expected to be collected, which includes implicit price concessions. Performance obligations are satisfied over time and as study data is transmitted to the customer. Revenue from the Company's Discovery Services is recognized using the time elapsed method and at a point in time as the Company delivers study results to the customers. As results are delivered, the invoices are generated based on contractual rates. Some contracts have prepayments prior to services being rendered that are recorded as deferred revenue. The Company records deferred revenues (contract liabilities) when cash payments are received or due in advance of its performance, including amounts which are refundable. The Company's customer arrangements do not contain any significant financing component.

Discovery Services frequently take time to complete under their respective contacts. These times vary depending on specific contract arrangements including the length of the study and how samples are delivered to the Company for processing. However, the duration of performance obligations for Discovery Services is less than one year.

The Company excludes from the measurement of the transaction price all taxes that it collects from customers that are assessed by governmental authorities and are both imposed on and concurrent with specific revenue-producing transactions.
Deferred revenue: Payments received in advance of services rendered are recorded as deferred revenue and are subsequently recognized as revenue in the period in which the services are performed.
Accounts receivable Accounts receivable: Accounts receivable are carried at net realizable value, which is the original invoice amount less an estimate for contractual adjustments, discounts and doubtful receivables, the amounts of which are determined by an analysis of individual accounts. The Company's policy for assessing the collectability of receivables is dependent upon the major payor source of the underlying revenue. The Company performs an assessment of credit worthiness prior to initial engagement and reassesses it periodically. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded when received.
Fixed assets Fixed assets: Fixed assets consist of diagnostic equipment and furniture and fixtures. Fixed assets are carried at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which generally range from five to twelve years. Repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred while improvements are capitalized. Upon sale, retirement or disposal of fixed assets, the accounts are relieved of the cost and the related accumulated depreciation with any gain or loss recorded to the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.Fixed assets are reviewed for impairment whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. These computations utilize judgments and assumptions inherent in the Company's estimate of future cash flows to determine recoverability of these assets. If the Company's assumptions about these assets were to change as a result of events or circumstances, the Company may be required to record an impairment loss.
Goodwill Goodwill: Goodwill resulted from the purchase of vivoPharm in 2017. In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, the Company is required to test goodwill for impairment and adjust for impairment losses, if any, at least annually and on an interim basis if an event or circumstance indicates that it is likely impairment has occurred. The Company's annual goodwill impairment testing date is October 1 of each year using a market approach.
Equity investment Equity investment: The Company has an equity investment that does not have a readily determinable market value, with a cost basis of $200 thousand at December 31, 2020 and 2019. This investment is measured at cost, less impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in ordinary transactions for the identical or similar investment of the same issuer. Changes in the fair value of the investment are recorded as net appreciation in fair value of investment in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Financing fees Financing fees: Financing fees are amortized using the effective interest method over the term of the related debt. Debt is recorded net of unamortized debt issuance costs.
Warrant liability
Warrant liability: The Company issued warrants during the 2016 Offerings and the 2017 Offering that contain a contingent net cash settlement feature, which are described herein as derivative warrants. The Company also issued warrants that were subject to a 20% reduction if the Company achieved certain financial milestones as part of its 2017 debt refinancing; these warrants were reclassified as equity during 2018 when the number of shares issuable under the agreement became fixed.

Derivative warrants are recorded as liabilities in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. These common stock purchase warrants do not trade in an active securities market, and as such, the Company estimated the fair value of these warrants using the binomial lattice, Black-Scholes and Monte Carlo valuation pricing models with the assumptions as follows: The risk-free interest rate for periods within the contractual life of the warrant is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve. The expected life of the warrants is based upon the contractual life of the warrants. The Company uses the historical volatility of its common stock and the closing price of its shares on the NASDAQ Capital Market.

The Company computes the fair value of the warrant liability at each reporting period and the change in the fair value is recorded as non-cash expense or non-cash income. The key component in the value of the warrant liability is the Company's
stock price, which is subject to significant fluctuation and is not under the Company's control. The resulting effect on the Company's net loss is therefore subject to fluctuation and will continue to be so until the warrants are exercised, amended or expire. Assuming all other fair value inputs remain constant, the Company will record non-cash expense when the stock price increases and non-cash income when the stock price decreases.
Derivative liabilities
Derivative liabilities: The Company evaluates its debt and equity issuances to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives requiring separate recognition in the Company’s financial statements. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as a liability and the change in fair value is recorded in other income (expense) in the consolidated results of operations. In circumstances where there are multiple embedded instruments that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument. The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is reassessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities are classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within twelve months of the balance sheet date.
When the Company has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized over the term of the related debt to their stated date of redemption and are recorded as interest expense in the consolidated results of operations.
Income taxes
Income taxes: Income taxes are provided for the tax effects of transactions reported in the consolidated financial statements and consist of taxes currently due plus deferred income taxes. Deferred income taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future. Deferred income taxes are also recognized for net operating loss (“NOLs”) carryforwards that are available to offset future taxable income and research and development credits.
Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. The Company has established a full valuation allowance on its deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2020 and 2019; therefore, the Company has not recognized any deferred tax benefit or expense in the periods presented. However, the sale of state NOLs and research and development credits are included in current income tax benefit for the period ended December 31, 2019. There were no state NOL sales for the year ended December 31, 2020.
ASC 740, Income Taxes, clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements. ASC 740 provides that a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions may be recognized when it is more-likely-than-not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. Income tax positions must meet a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold to be recognized. ASC 740 also provides guidance on measurement, de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. At December 31, 2020 and 2019 the Company had no uncertain tax positions, and the Company does not expect any changes with regards to uncertain tax positions during the year ending December 31, 2021.
The Company's policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. There is no accrual for interest or penalties on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2020 or 2019, and the Company has not recognized interest and/or penalties in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss for the years ended December 31, 2020 or 2019.
The Company's major taxing jurisdictions are the United States, Australia and New Jersey. The Company's tax years for 2017 through 2019 are subject to examination by the tax authorities. Generally, as of December 31, 2020, the Company is no longer subject to federal and state examinations by tax authorities for years before 2017. In Australia, the Company's tax returns are subject to examination for five years from the date of filing. However, to the extent allowed by law, the tax authorities may have the right to examine prior periods where net operating losses or tax credits were generated and carried forward, and make adjustments up to the amount of the net operating loss or credit carryforward.
Patents and other intangible assets Patents and other intangible assets: The Company accounts for intangible assets under ASC 350-30. Patents consisting of legal fees incurred are initially recorded at cost. The Company has also acquired patents that are initially recorded at fair value. Patents are amortized over the useful lives of the assets, which range from seven to ten years, using the straight-line method.
The Company reviews the carrying value of patents at the end of each reporting period. Based upon the Company's review, there was no patent impairment related to continuing operations in 2019. Based upon the Company's review in 2020 it was determined that 4 of the patents are related to business areas that will no longer be pursued by the Company. The recorded value of these patents of $71 thousand was written off in 2020. In addition, a 5th patent was similarly identified and determined that it is of value to an identified third party. The Company is currently in negotiations to sell this patent and has determined that legal work of approximately $50 thousand would be necessary to prepare the patent for sale. The Company recorded a contra asset in the amount of $50 thousand related to this patent, which reduced the amount of the patent held for sale from $206 thousand to $156 thousand.

Other intangible assets consist of vivoPharm’s customer list and trade name, which historically were amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets of ten years. FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 360, “Property, Plant, and Equipment,” provides guidance for the impairment of long-lived assets that are classified as held and used. In particular, the relevant guidance is included in the “Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Asset” subsections of ASC 360-10. Long-lived assets are required to be tested for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset group to which they belong may not be recoverable. If the carrying amount of the asset group is not recoverable, an impairment loss is measured based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset group over the fair value of the asset group. VivoPharm experienced an operating loss of approximately $1.5 million for the 12 months ended December 31, 2020 which was determined to be an indicator of impairment. Based upon the actual results for the first two months of the 2021 fiscal year, the Company updated the forecasted the operating results for the period from 2021 through 2026, the amortization period of the Company’s intangible assets and determine that the fair value of the intangible assets which was calculated using the present value of future cashflows, did not support its carrying value resulting in an impairment charge of $2.1 million, which was recorded in operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Stock-based compensation
Stock-based compensation: Stock-based compensation is accounted for in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair values on the grant date. The Company estimates the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods using the straight-line method. See additional information in Note 12.
All issuances of stock options or other issuances of equity instruments to employees as the consideration for services received by the Company are accounted for based on the fair value of the equity instrument issued.
Fair value of financial instruments Fair value of financial instruments: The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, approximate their estimated fair values due to the short-term maturities of those financial instruments.
Subsequent events Subsequent events: The Company has evaluated potential subsequent events through the date the financial statements were issued within our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements: In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740. The amendments also improve consistent application of and simplify GAAP for other areas of Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance. The standard will become effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating whether it will early adopt. The guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, Investments - Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which clarified that before applying or upon discontinuing the equity method of accounting for an investment in equity securities, an entity should consider observable transactions that require it to apply or discontinue the equity method of accounting for the purposes of applying the fair value measurement alternative. The amended guidance will become effective for the Company on January 1, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not believe this standard will have a material impact on its financial statements.

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides temporary optional guidance to ease the potential burden of accounting for reference rate reform due to the cessation of the London Interbank Offered Rate, commonly referred to as “LIBOR.” The temporary guidance provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, relationships, and
transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The provisions of the temporary optional guidance are only available until December 31, 2022, when the reference rate reform activity is expected to be substantially complete. When adopted, entities may apply the provisions as of the beginning of the reporting period when the election is made. The Company does not believe this standard will have a material impact on its financial statements and has yet to elect an adoption date.

In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, Codification Improvements. For public business entities, the amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020. The amendments in this update do not change U.S. GAAP and, therefore, are not expected to result in a significant change in practice. Section A was removed from the final update of ASU 2020-10. Section B of this update contains amendments that improve the consistency of the Codification by including all disclosure guidance in the appropriate Disclosure Section (Section 50). Section C of this update contains Codification improvements that vary in nature. Management does not expect that adoption of this guidance will have a significant impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Earnings (loss) per share Earnings (loss) per share: Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period of computation. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share except that the numerator is adjusted for the change in fair value of the warrant liability (only if dilutive) and the denominator is increased to include the number of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. For all periods presented, all common stock equivalents outstanding were anti-dilutive.